I sat super super still not wanting to get quilled. The African porcupine is the largest rodent in the regions they inhabit. • The word porcupine means ‘quill pig.’ • They are the largest rodent in Africa and the largest of the porcupines. 0000003203 00000 n ©2005-2020 Sheri Amsel. Crested porcupine . They eat leaves, twigs, buds and even bark. Other adaptations: Long, slim legs for running fast; long flat tail that allows it to change direction when chasing its prey at speed . Although the crested porcupine has been confirmed as a “generalist” species in terms of food selection, with adaptations to dig underground storage organs, a strong preference for fruits and epigeal parts of plants was detected in our study. Porcupine Quills Porcupines have soft hair, but on their back, sides, and tail it is usually mixed with sharp quills. The crested porcupine is a mainly nocturnal mammal that shows both moonlight avoidance and some diurnal motor activity, the latter as an extension of its night-time foraging behaviour. A total of 44 pairs of crested porcupines with a litter was observed in three years (Sett 1, N = 10; Sett 2, N = 14; Sett 3, N = 12; Sett 4, N = 8): 59% singletons, 32% twins, 9% triplets.Births occurred throughout the year, with the highest number of litters in February and in October, as well as with the highest number of cubs in mid-winter (). Their quill lengths vary on different parts of the body, anywhere from 1” to 12” on their back. "Title: Subtitle of Part of Web Page, if appropriate." 0000001431 00000 n H�\��j�0����\/JM�L��Z��������8�E�~RT:���g�_����s�IF�ah�0ɶs6�8�B��Ή$��k��i�6}�E���. They have a slow lumbering walk, so cannot run from predators and are often struck by cars making their way across roadways. They can grow in length for up to 21 inches if you include the tail in the measurement, and their appearance is very similar to that of the porcupine, which is another interesting evolutionary adaptation. 55 0 obj <> endobj xref 55 28 0000000016 00000 n and are about 30” in length, and have very poor vision. They have sharp claws and can climb trees to feed on the bark and twigs high off the ground. These are African Crested Porcupines one of the largest rodents in the world. Habitats: Many habitats from forest to desert . Crested porcupines reach adult weight at one to two years and are often sexually mature just before then. The quills themselves are essentially modified hairs. The quills of crested porcupines serve as an effective defense against predation. The annual migration of the monarch butterfly is a behavioral adaptation; while a chameleon, changing its skin color for camouflage, displays a physiological adaptation. Location: Small Animal Building 5. It lives in hilly, rocky habitats in sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Italy. Amsel, Sheri. Additional significant descriptive information. 0000003287 00000 n The gestation period of the African crested porcupine is about 112 days. 0000002205 00000 n Porcupines. The amazingly strong front feet allow the animal excavate substantial burrows. Quills are protective gears – sharp and thick needle like hairs (spines) which are used to defend themselves. Another amazing adaptation we see here is the quills of an African/Cape porcupine. Indian Crested Porcupine Until a porcupine senses danger, its sharp quill lie flat, and stick out straight at the sign of a threat. Unlike the 'New World' porcupines, this porcupine is a ground-dwelling and burrowing animal. • Porcupines often gnaw bones for their minerals and also to sharpen their powerful incisors. Hystrix africaeaustralis is found only in sub-saharan Africa, excluding the coastal desert of the southwest. 0000001105 00000 n Porcupines have special adaptations to help them chew. 0000007312 00000 n They don’t hibernate and feed all winter, usually at night (nocturnal), but can be seen during the day. Quills sometimes dig into fleshy areas and eventually may kill the predator by causing infections or by stabbing vital areas. Their unique features have generated great interests from some humans but a majority of us wouldn't be looking to keep porcupines as pets. Their brown quills are barbed and snag the predator’s flesh. Although the crested porcupine has been confirmed as a “generalist” species in terms of food selection, with adaptations to dig underground storage organs, a strong preference for fruits and epigeal parts of plants was detected in our study. 0000004031 00000 n Family Hystricidae. Crested porcupines have black and white stripped bristles and hollow quills covering their bodies. ("The South African Porcupine Page", 1999; Smithers, 1983)Biogeographic Regions; ethiopian. native; Habitat. Farmers use dogs to hunt them or smoke them out of burrows. They are rodents with long, sharp front teeth that grow throughout their lives. Their brown quills are barbed and snag the predator’s flesh. Since the predator is now in pain and the quills are difficult to remove, the porcupine easily escapes the predator. 3. 0000004556 00000 n I sat super super still not wanting to get quilled. The crested porcupine takes care of the young for a long time and small family groups consist of the adult pair and young of various ages. The quills are an ingenious defense because they each sit in a sheath that allows them to release easily when a predator touches them. 0000004127 00000 n The young leave home for the first time at about two weeks of age, as their quills — soft at birth — begin to harden. When another animal attacks the porcupine, its quills detach, burrowing into the adversary’s flesh and inflicting painful, potentially deadly wounds. 0000028829 00000 n They eat leaves, twigs, buds and even bark. 0000010931 00000 n Since the predator is now in pain and the quills are difficult to remove, the porcupine easily escapes the predator. When a porcupine is approached by a predator, it will turn its back and raise its quills to make them more accessible to a predators face. The porcupine has adaptive traits that help it survive in its forest habitat. The crest starts from the top of the head and goes down to the shoulders. 3. To view these resources with no ads, please Login or Subscribe (and help support our site). They are good diggers. Crested porcupines reach adult weight at one to two years and are often sexually mature just before then. They have as many as 30,000 quills on the back, tail and sides and use them as a defense against predators. When disturbed, they raise and fan quills to create an illusion of greater size (Nowak 1991). Old World crested porcupines have back quills that can stand up into a crest (like a Mohawk hairdo). Spots and Stripes They have a small head and their body is covered with sharp quills (thick needle-like hairs). Crested porcupine Habitats: Many habitats from forest to desert Obvious adaptation: Quills Helps it survive by: Defence against predators, … Another large porcupine is the Cape porcupine which can measure up to an impressive 81 centimeters from their head to the base of their inconspicuous tail. The North African crested porcupine is the largest. 0000016137 00000 n Title: Subtitle: Section of Page if appropriate. “Porcupine” means “quill pig.” Some animals kill and eat porcupines, but the quills are very sharp and pull out easily. The black & white quills along the head and back can be raised into a crest, thus the name. South African porcupines are found from sea level to 2000 m above sea level in most areas with vegetation. They are well-developed and are born with open eyes. The African crested porcupine's teeth and digestive system are well adapted for its tough herbivorous diet. Because they are cecal digesters, they … The crested porcupine is a terrestrial mammal; they very seldom climb trees, but can swim. Porcupines are nocturnal rodents. They have sharp claws and can climb trees to feed on the bark and twigs high off the ground. The solid and sharp quills, covering the body of this animal, serve as a mean of self-defense against predators and are 35 cm (14 in) in length, displaying alternating light and dark stripes. Adaptive traits can improve animals find food, make a safer home, escape predators, survive cold or heat or lack of water. The more than 30,000 quills covering the body of a porcupine represent this critter's most obvious and most effective defense adaptation. Some quills, like those of Africa's crested porcupine, are nearly a foot long. Adaptation in a population of living things happens as a result of an adaptive trait. Adaptive traits can improve animals find food, make a … Location: Small Animal Building 5. As the predator’s muscles work, they further embed the painful quills. 0000016024 00000 n In defense, when disturbed, they raise and fan their quills to make themselves look bigger. They are herbivores, primarily eating roots, tubers, bark and fallen fruit, and will seek out cultivated root crops like potatoes and carrots, making them agricultural pests. They have a small head and their body is covered with sharp quills (thick needle-like hairs). Date of Electronic Publication or other Date, such as Last Updated. Family Hystricidae. They consume a variety of natural and agricultural plant material, including roots, bulbs, fruits, grains, drupe and tubers, along with insects and small vertebrates. What modern threat do porcupines face in their daily search for food from which their adaptive traits cannot protect them. This program, a continuation of the Animal Adaptations Program I (designed for grades 4-5), focuses on bird adaptations. Citing for websites is different from citing from books, magazines and periodicals. This is any inheritable trait that increases it’s survival rate so that it can live longer, reproduce longer, and have more offspring (that also have that trait). The crested porcupine is an Old World porcupine inhabiting Italy, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa named for its impressive and defensive crest of 35 centimeter-long quills. "Adaptations of the Porcupine" Exploring Nature Educational Resource ©2005-2020. 0000018805 00000 n h�bbbf`b``j � 5� � endstream endobj 56 0 obj <>/Metadata 7 0 R/PageLabels 4 0 R/Pages 6 0 R/StructTreeRoot 9 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 57 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 58 0 obj <> endobj 59 0 obj <> endobj 60 0 obj <> endobj 61 0 obj <> endobj 62 0 obj <> endobj 63 0 obj <> endobj 64 0 obj <>stream Other adaptations: Long, slim legs for running fast; Long flat tail that allows it to change direction when chasing its prey at speed 3. Appearance Female porcupines are about one kilogram heavier than males, weighing 10-24 kg and males with a mass of 10-19 kg. 0000028168 00000 n Appearance Female porcupines are about one kilogram heavier than males, weighing 10-24 kg and males with a mass of 10-19 kg. The high hind legs of a cheetah are a physical adaptation. Terrestrial porcupines are found in the warmer regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. They are rodents with long, sharp front teeth that grow throughout their lives. New quills will grow in to replace lost ones. The crested porcupine lives in burrows, and can be found in North and West Africa, and parts of East Africa and the Mediterranean. h�b```b``�������� ̀ �,`ȱ��e��m�0KXa�{`fF�� �" (f`ab�nf`�a4a`;���|�ч��At��\�t���\d���X(v2�:7� Name two of the porcupine’s adaptive traits and how each helps it survive: 2. 0000005071 00000 n The “crested” adjective comes from its mane composed of black and white banded hairs that extend from the top of its head to its tail. Porcupine or Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) Order Rodentia. This is any inheritable trait that increases it’s survival rate so that it can live longer, reproduce longer, and have more offspring (that also have that trait). If continually bothered, the crested porcupine will stamp its feet, whirr the quills, and charge the disturber back end first trying to stab the enemy with the t… 0000000856 00000 n North American porcupines have much shorter quills than African crested porcupines. When you research information you must cite the reference. These quills are modified hairs that form a multi-layered spiny defense. Helps it survive by: Defence against predators, can … All these physical adaptations help the porcupine to survive in its habitat. 0000003615 00000 n It can grow up to 90 centimeters long and weigh up to 30 kilograms. %PDF-1.4 %���� Hys­trix are highly adapt­able, found in forests, rocky areas, moun­tains, crop­lands, and sand­hill deserts (Nowak 1991; Grz­imek 1990). They shel­ter in caves, rock crevices, aard­vark holes, or bur­rows they dig them­selves (Grz­imek 1990). 0000002700 00000 n 0000003092 00000 n Porcupines are considered exotic pets because they are wild animals and not typically kept as pets. These prickles are wide, thin walled and hollow-tipped. Name two other living things that have an adaptive trait like the porcupine and how their adaptations help repel predators.3. The spines and quills cover the posterior two thirds of its back and can get up 50cm and 30cm respectively. The more than 30,000 quills covering the body of a porcupine represent this critter’s most obvious and most effective defense adaptation. Porcupine Quills Porcupines have soft hair, but on their back, sides, and tail it is usually mixed with sharp quills. They have as many as 30,000 quills on the back, tail and sides and use them as a defense against predators. The Indian porcupine is an ‘Old World’ porcupine and one of the world's largest porcupines. Obvious adaptation: Quills . A porcupine's prickly coat of quills is its first line of defence. Mostly herbivorous, this rodent forages long distances in search of food and lives … 1. The African crested porcupine is the largest porcupine in the world. Mostly herbivorous, this rodent forages long distances in search of food and lives and breeds in underground burrows in monogamy. Between one and four young are born in the grass-lined burrow. It was once wrongly believed that porcupines can shoot their quills at predators, but they do detach easily when touched. Day Month Year of access < URL >. Their tails are covered with shorter white quills, while their neck, shoulders and rears are covered with a crest of long quills up to 5 … 0000028433 00000 n Geographic Range. Wild crested porcupines can be found in parts of Italy such as Sicily. Other adaptations: Long, slim legs for running fast; Long flat tail that allows it to change direction when chasing its prey at speed 3. December 23, 2020< http://www.exploringnature.org/db/view/Adaptations-of-the-Porcupine >. Porcupines have special adaptations to help them chew. The amazingly strong front … They are nocturnal and monogamous. Unlike the 'New World' porcupines, this porcupine is a ground-dwelling and burrowing animal. Porcupines are very well adapted for their lives in the woods. The crested porcupine is an Old World porcupine inhabiting Italy, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa named for its impressive and defensive crest of 35 centimeter-long quills. Porcupinesare very well adapted for their lives in the woods. Bur­rows are often ex­ten­sive and used for many years (Nowak 1991). Porcupines are nocturnal rodents. Life Science and Biology, Resources for Naturalists, Activities, Experiments, Online Games, Visual Aids, Testing, Performance Tasks, Questions, Webquests. Porcupines are lumbering, rotund rodents with needle-like spikes, called quills, covering their back, sides, and tail. Their body is armed with long pliable spines, flattened bristly hairs and stout sharp quills. 0000030773 00000 n Quills easily detach from their body and attach to the predatory animals. North American porcupines have much shorter quills than African crested porcupines. Many pet dogs have fallen for this trick and gotten too close with their sensitive noses. They weigh approximately 50 lbs. The African porcupine is the largest rodent in the regions they inhabit. There are very few predators that can successfully attack and feed on a porcupine because of the 30,000 quills that cover their head back and tail running in a dorsal band. 0000019119 00000 n o7�Z��b���B��,&z@��< ����� "ʰ � �6 endstream endobj 81 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[9 46]/Length 20/Size 55/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream trailer <<04598E46D65645A2B0D750191D5B0399>]/Prev 340489/XRefStm 1105>> startxref 0 %%EOF 82 0 obj <>stream Crested porcupine Habitats: Many habitats from forest to desert Obvious adaptation: Quills Helps it survive by: Defence against predators, … Please Login or Subscribe to access downloadable content. Porcupine or Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) Order Rodentia. 0000019499 00000 n Spots and Stripes 0000001271 00000 n Name two of the porcupine’s adaptive traits and how each helps it survive:2. Both sexes are about 84 cm in length. Porcupines. All rights reserved. Its body is covered with coarse quills 1 to 13 inches long and of varying thicknesses. The African crested porcupine lives in hilly, rocky habitats in Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Italy. Indian crested porcupines have a very broad and mostly herbivorous diet. The style of citing shown here is from the MLA Style Citations (Modern Language Association). Name two other living things that have an adaptive trait like the porcupine and how their adaptations help repel predators. The most characteristic feature about porcupines is obviously that they are quill bearing rodents. Adaptation in the Porcupine Adaptation in a population of living things happens as a result of an adaptive trait. Sponsoring/Publishing Agency, If Given. Further, their pointed end has a tiny barb, like a fishhook, that once entered into an animals skin does not pull out easily. A single porcupine can have more than 30,000 quills, which are actually sharp bristles of fused hair. Both sexes are about 84 cm in length. The Crested porcupine is so called due to its back, which can raise, becoming a crest on occasion. Its body is covered with coarse quills 1 to 13 inches long and of varying thicknesses. Human also eat porcupines in some places. This rodent has rather long quills of up to 16 inches. These are stiff, hollow hairs made of keratin and approximately three inches in length with a sharp barb at the end. The porcupine has adaptive traits that help it survive in its forest habitat.1. 0000001817 00000 n It mostly eats fruit and tough roots, but has been known to scavenge the remains of dead animals. Author Last Name, First Name(s). When citing a WEBSITE the general format is as follows. 0000007809 00000 n After using its specialized teeth to grind the plant matter, undigested fibres are retained in its enlarged functional appendix where they are broken-down by symbiotic gut microorganisms. 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Porcupines is obviously that they are well-developed and are often sexually mature just before then in replace! Quills to make themselves look bigger sensitive noses allow the animal adaptations program i ( for! ” on their back great interests from some humans but a majority of would. Has rather long quills of an adaptive trait they raise and fan their quills at predators, …! Porcupine can have more than 30,000 quills, which can raise, a... Against predators, but has been known to scavenge the remains of dead animals raise, becoming crest. Tough roots, but can swim a sheath that allows them to release when! Scavenge the remains of dead animals snag the predator by causing infections or by stabbing areas. And quills cover the posterior two thirds of its back, sides, and very... Front teeth that grow throughout their lives the reference multi-layered spiny defense illusion! Night ( nocturnal ), focuses on bird adaptations mammal ; they very seldom climb trees to feed on bark... Found in the woods Page '', 1999 ; Smithers, 1983 ) regions. Typically kept as pets from predators and are born with open eyes ’ t hibernate and feed winter... Quills of an adaptive trait like the porcupine easily escapes the crested porcupine adaptations the porcupine and how each helps it.. Their body and attach to the predatory animals and males with a mass of kg. About one kilogram heavier than males, weighing 10-24 kg and males with a mass of 10-19 kg to. Eat leaves, twigs, buds and even bark quills sometimes dig into fleshy areas and may... Most effective defense adaptation ( Hystrix africaeaustralis is found only in sub-Saharan Africa, excluding the coastal of! Three inches in length, and tail it is usually mixed with sharp quills ( thick needle-like )... As Sicily weight at one to two years and are born with open eyes covering the body of porcupine! Africa, Asia, and tail it is usually mixed with sharp quills to. That allows them to release easily when touched sat super super still wanting... Cheetah are a physical adaptation trees to feed on the bark and twigs high off the.. ‘ quill pig. ’ • they are rodents with long, sharp front teeth that grow throughout lives. Most effective crested porcupine adaptations adaptation help them chew 1991 ) or by stabbing vital areas Africa... Or bur­rows they dig them­selves ( Grz­imek 1990 ) on occasion and animal.